At the end of the chapter, the approach needed to analyze circuits that contain non-linear elements (e.g., diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, etc.) is discussed.

As a note, if the math in a particular section of this chapter starts looking scary, don’t worry. As it turns out, most of the nasty math in this chapter is used to prove, say, a theorem or law or is used to give you an idea of how hard things can get if you do not use some mathematical tricks. The actual amount of math you will need to know to design most circuits is surprisingly small; in fact, algebra may be all you need to know. Therefore, when the math in a particular section in this chapter starts looking ugly, skim through the section until you locate the useful, nonugly formulas, rules, etc. that do not have weird mathematical expressions in them.

Current

Current (symbolized with an I) represents the amount of electrical charge ∆Q (or dQ) crossing a cross-sectional area per unit time.

The unit of current is called the ampere (abbreviated amp or A) and is equal to one coulomb per second.

Electric currents typically are carried by electrons. Each electron carries a charge of –e.

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